Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is the asia-Pacific region`s main forum for facilitating trade and investment, economic growth and regional cooperation. At the meeting of heads of state and government in Hanoi on 19 November 2006, APEC leaders called for a fresh start to global free trade negotiations, while condemning terrorism and other security threats. APEC also criticized North Korea for conducting a nuclear test and missile test this year, and called on North Korea to take “concrete and effective” action on nuclear disarmament. In addition to economic issues, concerns about nuclear proliferation in the region were also addressed. The United States and Russia have signed an agreement as part of Russia`s application to join the World Trade Organization. djpen.kemendag.go.id/app_frontend/links/58-free-trade-agreement During this period, a division developed between the aggressive free trade and investment agenda of Anglo-American APEC members and Asian governments led by Japan. This has paralyzed APEC internally. Outside, APEC has faced increasing opposition at annual ministerial and state summits. Based on a small meeting of activists in Indonesia in 1994, regional NGOs met in Osaka in 1995 to analyze and combat these developments. Popular movements and NGOs organized massive mobilizations in the Philippines in 1996. Links have been established with structural adjustment at the national level and with the newly created WTO. Media skepticism has contributed to a major credibility crisis for APEC.
In 2012, APEC leaders continued to work to address next-generation trade and investment issues in order to further integrate APEC economies and expand trade across the region. They welcome to address transparency as an issue for the next generation of trade and investment and to support the APEC Model Chapter on Transparency for ATR/ATF, which should serve as a guide for APEC economies. A second feature of APEC was the adoption of the principle of concerted unilateralism as the main financial mechanism for trade liberalization. This process means that proposals are not formally negotiated. At the annual APEC summit, each member proposes an internal offer of trade and investment liberalization measures, an “Individual Action Plan” (IAP) that is not subject to serious negotiations. Members should also not approve the other`s plans to remove trade barriers. Describing it as an Asian approach that reinforces positive and debilitating differences or debates on concessions, this procedure will almost certainly not lead to a substantial move towards the APEC goal of completely removing all barriers to trade and investment by 2010 and 2020. Even at the WTO, where nations do not commit to the same openness, each nation must be satisfied with the tariff package and other concessions that others have offered at the negotiating table before signing the final agreement.
At the 2001 meeting of Heads of State and Government in Shanghai, APEC heads of state and government insisted that a new round of trade negotiations be established and that it support a trade capacity-building agenda, which culminated a few weeks later in the adoption of the Doha Development Agenda. The meeting also endorsed the Shanghai Agreement proposed by the United States, which focuses on open market implementation, structural reforms and capacity building. As part of the agreement, the meeting committed to developing and implementing APEC transparency standards, reducing transaction costs in the Asia-Pacific region by 5% over five years, and implementing a trade liberalization policy for information technology goods and services. The most recent strategy, led by the evangelical neoliberal governments of the